Language plays a leading role in the communication of people. It is a basis with the help of which people can share thoughts and ideas. Consequently, it is a vital attribute of a human being. The language interacts with human mental development. Many people believe that language is such a tool that helps to communicate. In fact, it is a combination of many elements that are related to each other.
According to the power point presentation, language is a system that is comprised of arbitrary sound-to-meaning connections. Thus, it is arbitrary since there is no particular connection between a sound and what the sound means. In other words, every language has its characteristics that are quite different. Nevertheless, there is one common classification of the modes of language, namely sign, speech, and writing. They are the constituent parts of every language because they help people to communicate.
Every language user has to know certain elements of language in order to successfully communicate. In other words, every user has to know phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and literacy. Accordingly, phonetics is the study that investigates the sound, which makes the user aware of sound he/she uses while communicating. Apart from sounds, the user is supposed to know phonology, which is the study that explains the change of the sounds. A bright example of the use of phonology may be the plural form of the noun (cod-cods). Morphology indicates the grammatical changes, for instance play-plays. The next element is syntax; it deals with the combination of words and their order, for example the phrase “she went to bed”. In its turn, semantics identifies the meaning of the words, so the user knows what each word means. Another element, pragmatics, indicates the way the language is used in terms of politeness and respectful tone. The last element is literacy, which can be explained as reading and writing conventions. These elements are important parts of the language that every user has to know.
Apart from the mentioned part, the user has to be aware of additional rules. Thus, the user should know grammatical rules, have linguistic knowledge, interaction skills, and cultural knowledge. Every single rule is significant because it helps to use language correctly. That is why one may realize that the language is not a simple notion: it is multifaceted and presupposes a combination of rules. Speaking about English, it is comprised of such elements as vernacular varieties, specialist varieties, non-academic and academic varieties. Specifically, every sphere has its own varieties. Both vernacular and specialist varieties differ according to the following aspects: vocabulary, syntax, and discourse. Every field requires its certain knowledge and skills. According to the power point presentation, there was an investigation conducted on students of social studies, ELA, Math, and Science aimed at identifying the challenges that were faced while studying. As a result, ELA students appeared not to know certain idioms, word order, and sentence structures, and were unfamiliar with making conclusions. Speaking about math, the following challenges were found: the formation of numbers, different measurement systems, and Math terms. Concerning science, the students were not able to make conclusions, guesses; the level of vocabulary was too complicated for them, and the syntax was difficult as well. Moreover, students faced some challenges in social studies. The most obvious were such challenges as lack of former knowledge, passive voice, complex sentences, and difficulty in understanding what is important and what is not.
Generally, the power point presentation represents the idea that language is a complex notion that is comprised of many parts. That is why every language user has to know such elements as syntax, morphology, pragmatics, phonetics, semantics, and literacy. Apart from that, users should know the rules, linguistic peculiarities, and cultural knowledge respectively.
Planning of the lesson is the important part of teachers’ work. It requires enough time and effort, especially when the class consists of students of different levels. It is important to create such a plan due which every single student will be able to understand the information in class.
According to the Chapter 2, lesson preparation presupposes the following objectives, namely content and language ones. Initially, they consist of appropriate content concepts, supplementary material, and adaptation of content and meaningful activities. Every teacher has to concentrate on the mentioned factors in order to make the lesson effective. Nevertheless, every teacher faces some problems while preparing for the lesson. The most common problem is a different level of knowledge or different level of spoken language. That is to say that in a class there may be students who know the material better and there may be some who do not understand the material at all. Consequently, the teacher is required to make different level material for the class. It will help to reduce the knowledge gap between the students.
Besides the relevant material, the teacher has to create the plan and presuppose the possible outcomes. According to the Chapter 2, while preparing a plan the teacher has to think what he/she wants to achieve, and what the students will learn after the class. Additionally, it is recommended to create a separate plan for a day, week and month respectively. The reason for this is that such a plan will help to determine the outcomes of the lesson. Alternatively stated, the teacher will be able to see if the lessons are effective or not.
One of the most important issues for teachers is the second language users. It is required of a certain level of material that will be understandable and relevant to their knowledge. In accordance with the chapter, every teacher should understand that acquiring a second language is a process. That is why students will not be able to reflect the information after a single lesson. Consequently, teachers have to provide lasting practice due to which it will be possible to see the result. That is why the chapter illustrates what should be the progress of the lesson. The bright example is the understanding of similes. For example, at the beginning, students should know how to recognize the similes, after the student has to discuss the function of the similes, the next step will be to write the similes, and eventually, the student will be able to write a paragraph with using the similes. It will help to understand whether the student knows the material or not. Consequently, every teacher has to identify language objectives.
In accordance with a chapter: there are four categories of language objections, which require a certain attention. The first category is academic vocabulary. All the words read and written, should be focused on the covered material in class. Moreover, the vocabulary should be based on three categories, namely content vocabulary, general academic vocabulary, and word parts. It will help students to understand the language better. Together with the vocabulary, there is one of the most important issues to consider such as language skills and function. It shows how students use language in the classroom. Students require strict direction how to use language properly. Hence, they should be guided. Nevertheless, the activities also should be linked with the material covered in class. The next category is language structure or a grammar. The teacher is responsible for paying attention to the students’ structure of the language. The bright example may be a task when students have difficulties with a passive voice or conditionals. The teacher has to explain in details all the peculiarities of the mentioned structure. The last category is language-learning strategies. They help to learn better and faster. The teacher should encourage students to discover the most effective strategy. Consequently, the students will benefit from them.
In conclusion, every teacher is required to create the learning plan for the class. It will help the teacher likewise the students to learn faster and effectively. The teacher has to consider on a different level of knowledge and language differences in class in order to create a great plan for every student.