Management of Human-Induced Emergencies
The topic of this study is about emergency management with specific reference to human-induced emergencies. I chose this topic because of its important role in saving lives, protecting peoples properties and businesses and due to its significance in ensuring the general safety of all human beings in any particular society. The topic of emergency management is key for all aspects of the society in understanding the way the human lives and properties can be protected. Understanding this category is very crucial for all societies because emergencies cannot be avoided (Drabek, 1991). They can strike at any time and any place without warning, and, therefore, management which includes early warning and quick response is essential. Human-induced emergencies are very complex because they may not be intentional acts by people but their impacts can be devastating (Drabek, 1991). Human-induced emergencies are common in daily lives as some of them come from mistakes that individuals make on a daily basis while other are due to conscious decisions persons make with the aim of giving more insights to what they stand for.
The research was done using a number of techniques including the literature review of the material related to emergency management. Data was also collected from different emergency management experts through interviews. Interview guides were used to obtain rich and contextual information from key informants who are major actors and stakeholders in emergency management. The interview questions were based on the most important issues that emerged from the review of the literature. Guiding interview questions are outlined below.
1. What are the likely causes of human-induced emergencies?
2. What are the most effective designs and guidelines to use in advanced emergency management?
3. Which kind of experts is needed in emergency management?
4. Which safety and precautionary measures should be taken to ensure that emergency management specialists are safe even as they fulfil their duties?
The survey was somewhat challenging as some of the experts who were contacted, especially some security specialists, were unwilling to share some information that they considered Classified. This made the research a little difficult. Despite the small challenge with security experts, there was nothing unexpected in the research.
Most of the respondents gave varied information based on their knowledge and experiences with regards to emergency management. On the causes of human-induced emergencies, most of the respondent named a number of factors that they attributed as the reasons of emergencies that could lead to losses of lives and property. Some of these causes included civil disorders, crimes, and security threats such as terrorism among others.
Emergency management experts also gave a number of ways that they use to ensure proper emergency management procedures. Error Correcting Code memory (ECC) is the most widely used system by the emergency managers who appear to be helpless in the face of the threat. This design is anchored on the basic principle of emergency management which is about saving lives (Boin & Rhinard, 2008). The ECC memory gadget identifies the slightest discrepancies that are likely to arise during emergency management process and thus enables experts to take the most appropriate and urgent corrective measures that need to be used.
Emergency management specialists need to be the people who are well trained in emergency management and who can handle any issues that arise from the emergency situation. The experts in this field should refresh their knowledge and skills from time to time in order to cope with emerging issues or new challenges that arise in this field.
Safety is a factor that must be highly considered in almost every sector. Based on this, emergency managers have to ensure that both their safety and that of the people they attend to is guaranteed. Similarly, emergency specialists have to assure that no matter how challenging a situation is, they are able to keep themselves away from harm.
Discussion of Findings
Civil disturbances normally cause confusion and uncertainties whenever they impact on a certain group of people. There are always a lot of expectations from ordinary citizens during emergencies, especially from the security agencies. This is especially important during civil disturbances when the police are normally on standby to maintain law and order as well as protect property and the lives of people that might be at stake during such difficult times. When responding to emergencies emanating from civil disturbances, emergency managers have to grapple with a number of factors that are likely to arise from these events. These challenges could include dealing with a charged crowd that poses danger even to the emergency specialists themselves who may, in this case, encompass the security agents. The people involved in civil disturbances may also be extremely dangerous to others as some of them may be armed with guns, petroleum bombs, missiles, among other crude weapons. This calls for more stringent and careful ways of dealing with such emergency situation. The emergency managers and security forces have, therefore, to put in place all measures to deal with more damages that may most likely arise from these civil disturbances (Boin & Rhinard, 2008). Even if the measures are put in place, the safety of both the security agents and the citizens they protect cannot be guaranteed because safety is paramount to all humans no matter what their job description is about. This, therefore, means that even the emergency managers, despite being the presumed protectors, have a duty to make sure that they are also safe from whatever circumstances that could be prevailing at the time. Therefore, based on these arguments it is important to consider that safety is a significant aspect in the management of human-induced emergencies like riots, strikes and violent civil disagreements or disorders (Boin & Rhinard, 2008). Some of the safety measures that need to be undertaken are as discussed below.
One of the most fundamental principles in emergency management is saving as many lives as possible during the emergency situation. Emergency managers have serious guidelines that they must follow at all times during the course of their work to be able to execute their duties accordingly. As most of the informants cited, emergency management is about prompt action aimed towards saving of lives. The experts hailed the role of technology in emergency management. This has been featured prominently through the use of the mobile Error Correcting Code memory (ECC memory). ECC is very important in handling emergency situations since it has the ability to detect even the slightest errors during the process of emergency management. It also has the ability to discard the identified mistakes so that it does not end up causing more challenges to the emergency management process (Drabek, 1991).
The experts noted that during emergencies, the management and flow of information forms a crucial part of the emergency management cycle. They contend that it is important to consider the influence of technology on various aspects of emergency management. Human-induced emergencies, which are mainly security concerns, can best be handled by the ECC design as it gives no room for errors (Borucki, 2008). The ECC memory can also be connected to other gadgets so that it easily relays information and provides effective ways of communication between the incident contenders and other people involved in the emergency operation. Even if the information is shared, most of the respondents argued that management of information can create a crisis, and, therefore, proper management of information is also an essential part of the emergency management. This is because it helps to enhance security at various levels within the system (Boin & Rhinard, 2008).
Most of the respondent also stated that it was very important to consider the levels of qualification and expertise for most of the experts. In this regard, they stated that it was easier to use people who had the technical knowhow in technology and other areas to help in the process of emergency management. This also meant that persons who could operate machines or devices such as the ECC memory were considered more prepared for this kind of activity than those who were new in this area. There was the need for engineers, computer specialist and information technology experts as well to make the operation of the process of emergency management smoother and easier. This could be attributed to the response given by the specialists on the basis of personnel qualification and their effectiveness in the operationalization of the system (Borucki, 2008).
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It is important also to give priority to the well-being of the employees who are involved in the emergency management. According to most of the respondents, the work, done by the emergency managers, puts them at a big risk both in terms of their health status as well as their safety. This, therefore, means that a person involved in this work is living in risk that may claim his/her life. Based on this argument it is imperative that the highest levels of precautionary measures are undertaken to give rise to the level of safety that can in one way or another be satisfactory to the people involved. This means that such activities like insurance covers and medical support should be on the standby for the emergency managers just in case anything does not go according to plan. The element of risk here also entails having the highest levels of safety standards whenever the emergency managers are handling emergency situation in highly volatile areas. These could be those cases, where the managers instead of being viewed as impartial helpers, are considered by some sections of the people involved in riots or protests as aggressors, and hence the latter can cause harm to the former.
Emergency management is the area of study that requires expertise and not individuals who are not sure about what they are doing. The experts in the field of emergency management should understand their roles as well as the expectations that all people have on them. During the study there was a lot to learn about. First is that specific section of this study that required practical engagements and thus making the learning of the experts more interesting. The research would also need one to give more information on other areas that may have not been tested. The study gave wider scope for more future studies and thus identifying more gaps that may need to be filled hence more advanced. I enjoyed the research and would wish to work towards investigating more interesting elements of this area in the social sciences. Social sciences are very important for all aspects of human relations. They are useful in the evaluation of the relationships between human beings and also in understanding how people behave.
Emergency management of human-induced hazards is an enormous responsibility that requires participation of all elements of the society. This means that the ordinary persons, security agents, and trained experts in the field of emergency management must all put their efforts together so that the realization of positive outcomes is easily accessible. It is also interesting to note that no matter how difficult things are, emergency managers must be ready to go an extra mile to ensure that everything is alright, and even as they do this, they must give their safety a priority as well so that the society does not end up having a crisis within a crisis which could complicate the situation even further.
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